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Dell Technologies industry experts post their thoughts about our Communication Service Providers Solutions.

blogs (9)


To slice or not to slice

Arthur Gerona Tomi Varonen

Wed, 25 Jan 2023 21:53:29 -0000


Read Time: 0 minutes

Network Slicing is possibly the most central feature of 5G – lots of game-changing potentials, but at the same time often overhyped and misunderstood. In this blog, we will give a fact-based assessment and guidance on the question of “To Slice Or Not To Slice.”

Guidance for the reader:

  • Entire blog – 7-minute read to understand the background and future of Network Slicing
  • From “Service differentiation starts in the RAN” – 4-minute read if only interested in the future of Network Slicing

The bar was set too high

5G doesn’t only promise to enhance mobile broadband but also to support a wide range of enterprise use cases – from those requiring better reliability and lower latency to those requiring a long battery life and greater device density. From the long list of 3GPP Release 15 features, Network Slicing is the cornerstone feature for service creation. The basic idea behind this feature is the ability to subdivide a single physical network into many logical networks where each is optimized to support the requirements of the services intended to run on it.

We can think of Network Slicing as ordering pizza for friends. 4G gets you the classic Margherita, which is acceptable to most. Yet some would be willing to pay more for extra toppings. In this case, 5G allows you to customize the pizza where half can still be the classic Margherita, but the remaining slices can be split into four cheese, pepperoni, and Hawaiian.

It all sounds great, but why are we not seeing Network Slicing everywhere today? Let us explore some of the hurdles it has to clear before becoming more mainstream.

Slicing requires new features to work – Network equipment providers need to develop these new features, especially on the  Radio Access Network (RAN), and communications service providers need to implement them. This will take time since much of the initial industry focus has been on enhanced mobile broadband and fixed wireless access, which is the initial monetizable 5G use cases.

Slicing needs automation to be practical – While it is possible to create network slices manually at the start, doing so at scale takes too long and costs too much. An entirely new 3GPP-defined management and orchestration layer is needed for slicing orchestration and service assurance. Business Support Systems (BSS) also need new integrations and feature enhancements to support capabilities like online service ordering and SLA-based charging.

Slicing has to make money – There will come a time when we cannot live without the metaverse and web 3.0, but that is not today. There will also come a time when factories will be run by collaborative robots and infrastructures are maintained by autonomous drones, but that is not today. The reality is that there is limited demand for custom slices since most consumer and enterprise use cases today work fine on 4G or 5G non-standalone networks. For example, YouTube and other over-the-top streaming apps implement algorithms to adapt to varying speeds and latency. Lastly, Network Slicing also comes with additional costs related to implementation, operations, and reduced overall capacity (due to resource reservation and prioritization) that must be factored into the business case.

Regulatory challenges – Net Neutrality is an essential topic in the United States and European Union. Misinterpreting differentiated services as something that violates Net Neutrality may put communications service providers under scrutiny by regulators.

It’s not all doom and gloom

5G standalone may have been slow out of the gate, but it is gaining momentum. In 2022, GSA counted 112 operators in 52 countries investing in public 5G standalone networks. Some communications service providers are even more advanced. For example, Singtel has already implemented Paragon, an orchestration platform that allows them to offer network slices and mobile edge computing for mission-critical applications on demand. Another example is Telia Finland which uses Network Slicing to guarantee the service level for its home broadband (fixed wireless access) subscribers.

There are also a lot of ongoing and planned projects that aim to accelerate the development of enterprise use cases. Collaborations such as ARENA2036, a research campus in Germany, allow communications service providers, network equipment manufacturers, independent software vendors, system integrators, and the academe to work together in developing and testing new technologies and services.

Service differentiation starts in the RAN

One of the key reasons behind this positive momentum shift in 2022 is the major network equipment providers like Nokia and Ericsson bringing to the market their Network Slicing features for the RAN. These features enable the reservation and prioritization of RAN resources to particular slices. According to these vendors, Network Slice capacity management is done dynamically, which means the scarce air interface resources are allocated as efficiently as possible. This has been the much-needed catalyst for the first commercial launches and pre-commercial trials across several industries: fixed wireless access (live), video streaming (live), smart city, public safety, remote TV broadcast, assisted driving, enterprise interconnectivity, and mining.

Another positive development is related to smartphones where the biggest mobile operating system (Android OS) started supporting multiple Network Slices simultaneously on the same device (from Android 12). This is beneficial to both consumer and enterprise use cases that have more demanding requirements for speed and latency.

These enhancements on the RAN and devices close several gaps. We can therefore expect Network Slicing to gain even more traction in 2023.

Network Slicing versus Mobile Private Network

 Several hundred successful 4G and 5G Mobile Private Networks (MPN) have been deployed globally. Many have specific indoor coverage, cybersecurity, or business-critical performance requirements that can be best accomplished with dedicated network resources. The common challenges for MPN are private spectrum availability, high cost of deployment and operations, and long lead times.

5G use cases can only be deployed through Network Slicing or MPN, but the majority can be deployed on either. In our view, the discussion should not focus too much on comparing Network Slicing to MPN but should rather be on the use case requirements such as coverage, where Network Slicing is a natural fit for wide areas and MPN is a natural fit for deep indoor. Communications service providers should have both solutions in their toolbox as individual enterprise customers may require both for their various use cases. Let the use case dictate the solution, similar to the approach of most network equipment providers for private wireless (4G/5G versus WiFi6/6E).

The Future of Network Slicing

In our view, the evidence is clear from the recently available slicing features and commercial/pre-commercial market deployments to conclude that Network Slicing is here to stay, enabling new service creation and fostering competitive differentiation. Only time will tell how successful it will be with consumer and enterprise market segments. The level of investments by governments, industry groups, communications service providers, and network equipment providers will play a major role in the success or failure of Network Slicing. At the same time, communications service providers should keep in mind other industry players like AWS and other webscale companies who are betting big on 5G with MPN-based solutions (as Network Slicing is not an option for them).

Communications service providers must understand that Network Slicing, in most situations, is not a sellable service, but rather an enabler to support services with performance or security requirements that are significantly different from mobile broadband. Differentiation for most of the use cases will be in the RAN domain since the air interface is a constrained resource and the RAN equipment is too costly to dedicate.

While there is no harm to having the management and orchestration layer from the start especially if CAPEX is not an issue, it is still recommended to first focus on deploying the end-to-end network features Network Slicing requires and on identifying monetizable use cases that will benefit from it. Note that some use cases require additional features such as those that lower latency and improve reliability.

The vast majority of consumer and enterprise end users are not interested in the underlying technologies, but rather just want to achieve the speed, latency, and reliability they need for the services they enjoy or need. And in many cases even discussions on speed, latency and reliability do not interest them as long as the services are performing as expected. Communications service providers should have the capability to create and market the services by themselves or, in most instances, with the right partners. Unlike 4G, the potential of 5G can no longer be realized just by the communications service providers and network equipment vendors.

Communications service providers should have a complete toolbox – different tools for different requirements. And the guidance is not to stand idly, but to gain experience and form partnerships for both Network Slicing and MPN.

Deploying Network Slicing or MPN and moving into new business models where offering multiple tailored and assured connectivity services are not trivial tasks. How Dell can help CSPs in this transformation journey:

  • With its vast enterprise experience and solutions, as well as its Service Co-creation teams to co-develop services and go-to-market strategies.
  • MPN and Edge solutions. E2E platform-centric solutions with connectivity and application fabric based on modular architectural design. Dell works with several industry-leading Independent Software Vendors (ISVs) to offer validated designs and ready-to-use platforms that are customizable and integrated by Dell's SI partners to meet desired outcomes of the business.
  • Engineered and automated solutions of the underlying Cloud infrastructure. Open and cloud-native architecture is the industry-chosen platform for mobile networks. It has many benefits like better service agility and being vendor agnostic, but it also introduces more complexity. With Dell Technologies’ engineered and automated infrastructure blocks, communications service providers can focus on creating new services.

About the author: Tomi Varonen

Principal Global Enterprise Architect


Tomi Varonen is a Telecom Network Architect in Dell’s Telecom Systems Business Unit. He is based in Finland and working with the Cloud and Core Network customer cases in the EMEA region. Tomi has over 23 years of experience in the Telecom sector in various technical and sales positions.  He has wide expertise in end-to-end mobile networks and enjoys creating solutions for new technology areas. Tomi has a passion for various outdoor activities with family and friends including skiing, golf, and bicycling.

About the author: Arthur Gerona

Principal Global Enterprise Architect


Arthur is a Principal Global Enterprise Architect at Dell Technologies. He is working on the Telecom Cloud and Core area for the Asia Pacific and Japan region. He has 19 years of experience in Telecommunications, holding various roles in delivery, technical sales, product management, and field CTO. During his free time, Arthur likes to travel with his family.

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telecom automation

Accelerating the Journey towards Autonomous Telecom Networks

Saad Sheikh Arthur Gerona

Fri, 06 Jan 2023 14:29:40 -0000


Read Time: 0 minutes

How Dell Technologies is supporting communications service providers accelerate automation



Communications service providers (CSPs) are on a journey of digital transformation that gives them the ability to offer new innovative services and a better customer experience in an open, agile, and cost-effective manner. Recent developments in 5G, Edge, Radio Access Network disaggregation, and, most importantly the pandemic have all proven to be catalysts that accelerated this digital transformation.   However, all these advancements in telecom come with their own set of challenges. New architectures and solutions have made the modern network considerably more complex and difficult to manage.

In response, CSPs are evaluating new ways of managing their complex networks using automation and artificial intelligence. The ability to fully orchestrate the operation of digital platforms is vital for touchless operations and consistent delivery of services. Almost every CSP is working on this today. However, the standard automation architecture and tools can't be directly applied by CSPs as all these solutions need to adhere to strict telecom requirements and specifications such as those defined by enhanced Telecom Operations Map (eTOM), Telecom Management Forum (TM Forum), European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI), 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP), etc.  CSPs also need to operate many telecom solutions including legacy physical network functions (PNF), virtual network functions (VNF), and the latest 5G era containerized network functions (CNF).   



Removing barriers with telecom automation

Although many CSPs have built cloud platforms, only a handful have achieved their automation targets. So, what do you do when there is no ready-made industry-standard automation solution? You build one. And that’s exactly what Dell Technologies did with the recent launch of its Dell Telecom Multi-Cloud Foundation. Dell Telecom Multi-Cloud Foundation automates the deployment and life-cycle management of the cloud platforms used in a telecom network to reduce operational costs while consistently meeting telco-grade SLAs. It also supports the leading cloud platforms offering operators the flexibility of choosing the platform that best meets their needs based on workload requirements and cost-to-serve. It streamlines telecom cloud design, deployment, and management with integrated hardware, software, and support.




The solution includes Dell Telecom Infrastructure Blocks. Telecom Infrastructure Blocks are engineered systems that provide foundational building blocks that include all the hardware, software and licenses to build and scale out cloud infrastructure for a defined telecom use case. 

Telecom Infrastructure Block releases will be delivered in an agile manner with multiple releases per year to simplify lifecycle management. In 2023, Dell Telecom Infrastructure Blocks will support workloads for Radio Access Network and Core network functions with:

  • Dell Telecom Infrastructure Blocks for Wind River which will support vRAN and Open RAN workloads.


Dell Telecom Infrastructure Blocks for RedHat will target core network workloads (planned). The primary goal of Telecom Multi-Cloud Foundation with Telecom Infrastructure Blocks is to deliver telco cloud platforms that are engineered for scaled deployments, providing three core capabilities: 


  • Integration: All components of the platform, including computing, storage, networking, ancillaries like accelerators, Cloud CaaS software, and management tools are integrated into Dell’s factories.
  • Validation: A solution engineered and validated by our cloud partners and already proven to work in the field. The engineering and validation process includes detailed test cases across both functional and non-functional aspects of the platform
  • Automation:  A Solution that is fully automated and that can seamlessly integrate with Telco’s existing orchestration and inventory systems.




Dell Technologies Telecom Multi-Cloud Foundation meets Telco automation requirements


Dell Technologies Multi-Cloud Foundation provides communications service providers with a platform-centric solution based on open Application Programming interfaces (APIs) and consistent tools. This means the platform can deliver outcomes based on a unique use case and workload and then scale out deployments using an API-based approach.

Dell Telcom Multi-Cloud Foundation enables telco-grade automation through the following key capabilities:

  • An open API and workflow approach: All the capabilities of the platform are available as declarative APIs so there is no need to manage each infrastructure component independently, rather open APIs and workflows are triggered via northbound orchestration systems. This capability not only automates deployment but also Day 2 operations and life-cycle management.
  • Scalable architecture: The automation architecture is based on a fully distributed and federated architecture, so it can scale to 100,000’s of sites.
  • Data-Driven architecture: The automation architecture is data-driven and distributed so data can be tapped from edge and regional sites enabling real-time use cases and data-driven automation.



Automation use cases with Dell Technologies Telecom Multi-Cloud Foundation

Telecom Automation is not just about Day 0 (design) and Day 1 (deployment) but should also cover Day 2 (operations and lifecycle management). Dell Telecom Multi-Cloud Foundation supports the following use cases:


  • Automated DeploymentIt includes a fully-automated deployment of the cloud infrastructure based on customer specifications.
  • O-Cloud as Code: It employs declarative automation using infrastructure data, which includes site data, networking, resources, and credentials to automate tasks independent of the workflow. This de-coupling is crucial to orchestrate the platform.  


  • Operational fulfillment: Integrations with Wind River Studio Conductor delivers full set of operational tools that provide a single management and observation platform for the operations team. This helps with creating a unified layer for Network Operations Center (NOC) teams to monitor and manage the platform.
  • Staging: The platform is staged in Dell’s factory to reduce the time spent deploying and configuring the system on-site and can be tuned in the field using the built-in automation to meet any unique operator specifications. 


Dell Technologies developed Dell Telecom Multi-Cloud Foundation and Dell Telecom Infrastructure Blocks to accelerate 5G cloud infrastructure transformation. Our current release of Telecom Infrastructure Blocks for Wind River delivers an engineered and factory-integrated system that comes with a fully automated deployment model for CSPs looking to build resilient and high-performance RAN.


To learn more about our solution, please visit the Dell Telecom Multi-Cloud Foundation solutions site.




 profile imageAbout the Author: Saad Sheikh

Saad Sheikh is APJ's Lead Systems Architect in Telecom Systems Business at Dell Technologies. In his current role, he is responsible for driving Telecom Cloud, Automation, and NGOPS transformations in APJ supporting partners, NEPs, and customers to accelerate Network Transformation for 5G, Open RAN, Core, and Edge using Dell’s products and capabilities. He is an industry leader with over 20 years of experience in Telco industry holding roles in Telco, System Integrators, Consulting businesses, and with Telecom vendors where he has worked on E2E Telecoms systems (RAN, Transport, Core, Networks), Cloud platforms, Automation, Orchestration, and Intelligent Networking. As part of Dell CTO team, he represents Dell in Linux Foundation, TMforum, GSMA, and TIP.

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edge NEBS

Computing on the Edge: Other Design Considerations for the Edge – Part 1

Mike Moore

Fri, 13 Jan 2023 19:46:50 -0000


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In past blogs, the requirements for NEBS Level 3 certifications were addressed, with even higher demands depending on the Outside Plant (OSP) installation requirements.  Now, additional design considerations need to be considered, to create a hardware solution that is not only going to survive the environment at the edge, but provides a platform that can be effectively deployed to the edge.

Ruggedized Chassis Design

The first design consideration that we’ll cover for an Edge Server is the Ruggedized Chassis.  This is certainly a chassis that can stand up to the demands of Seismic Zone 4 testing and can also withstand impacts, drops, and vibration, right? 

Not necessarily.

While earthquakes are violent, demanding, but relatively short-duration events, the shock and vibration profile can differ significantly when the server is taken out from under the Cell Tower.  We are talking beyond the base of the tower, and to edge environments that might be encountered in Private Wireless or Multi-Access Edge Compute (MEC) deployments. Some vibration and shock impacts are tested in GR-63-Core, under test criteria for Transportation and Packaging, but ruggedized designsA picture containing luggage, suitcase, indoor, piece

Description automatically generatedFigure 1. Portable Edge Compute Platforms need to go beyond this level of testing.

For example, the need for ruggedized servers in mining or military environments, where setting up compute can be more temporary in nature and often includes the use of portable cases, such as Pelican Cases.  These cases are subject to environmental stresses and can require ruggedized rails and upgraded mounting brackets on the chassis for those rails. For longer-lasting deployments, enclosures can be less than ideal and require all the requirements of a GR-3108 Class 2 device and perhaps some additional considerations.  

Dell Technologies also tests our Ruggedized (XR-series) Servers to MIL-STD-810 and Marine testing specifications.  In general, MIL-STD-810 temperature requirements are aligned with GR-63-CORE on the high side but test operationally down to -57C (-70F) on the low side.  This reflects some extreme parts of the world where the military is expected to operate.   But MIL-STD-810 also covers land, sea, and air deployments. This means that non-operational (shipping) criteria is much more in-depth, as are acceleration, shock, and vibration.  Criteria includes scenarios, such as crash survivability, where the server can be exposed to up to 40Gs of acceleration.  Of course, this tests not only the server, but the enclosure and mounting rails used in testing.

So why have I detoured onto MIL-STD and Marine testing?  For one, it’s interesting in the extreme “dynamic” testing requirements that are not seen in NEBS.  Secondly, creating a server that is survivable in MIL-STD and Marine environments is only complementary to NEBS and creates an even more durable product that has applications beyond the Cellular Network.

Server Form Factor

Figure 2. Typical Short Depth Cell Site EnclosureAnother key factor in chassis design for the edge is the form factor.  This involves understanding the physical deployment scenarios and legacy environments, leading to a server form factor that can be installed in existing enclosures without the need for major infrastructure improvements.  For servers, 19 inch rackmount or 2 post mounting is common, with 1U or 2U heights.  But the key driver in the chassis design for compatibility with legacy telecom environments is short depth.

Server depth is not something covered by NEBS, but supplemental documentation created by the Telecoms, and typically reflected in RFPs, define the depth required for installation into Legacy Environments.  For instance, AT&T’s Network Equipment Power, Grounding, Environmental, and Physical Design Requirements document states that “newer technology” deployed to a 2 post rack, which certainly applies to deployments like vRAN and MEC, “shall not” exceed 24 inches (609mm) in depth.  This disqualifies most traditional rackmount servers.

The key is deployment flexibility.  Edge Compute should be able to be mounted anywhere and adapt to the constraints of the deployment environment.  For instance, in a space-constrained location, front maintenance is a needed design requirement.  Often these servers will be installed close to a wall or mounted in a cabinet with no rear access.  In addition, supporting reversible airflow can allow the server to adapt to the cooling infrastructure (if any) already installed.


While NEBS requirements focus on Environmental and Electrical Testing, ultimately the design needs to consider the target deployment environment and meet the installation requirements of the targeted edge locations.  

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Wind River Dell Telecom Multi-Cloud Foundation

How Dell Telecom Infrastructure Blocks are Simplifying 5G RAN Cloud Transformation

Gaurav Gangwal

Thu, 08 Dec 2022 20:01:48 -0000


Read Time: 0 minutes

5G is a technology that is transforming industry, society, and how we communicate and live in ways we’ve yet to imagine. Communication Service Providers (CSPs) are at the heart of this technological transformation. Although 5G builds on existing 4G infrastructure, 5G networks deployed at scale will require a complete redesign of communication infrastructure. 5G network transformation is undergoing, where more than 220 operators in more than 85 countries have already launched services, and they have realized that operational agility and accelerated deployment model in such a decentralized and cloud-native landscape are considered a must-have to meet customer demands for new innovative capabilities, services, and digital experiences for both Telecom and vertical industries. This is accompanied by the promise of cloud native architectures and open and flexible deployments, which enable CSPs to scale and enable new data-driven architectures in an open ecosystem. While the initial deployments of 5G are based on the Virtualized Radio Access Network (vRAN), which offers CSPs enhanced operational efficiency and flexibility to fulfill the needs of 5G customers, Open RAN expands vRAN's design concepts as well as goals and is truly considered the future. Although O-RAN disaggregates the network, providing network operators more flexibility in terms of how their networks are built and allowing them the benefits of interoperability, the trade-off for the flexibility is typically increased operational complexity, which incurs additional costs of continuous testing, validation, and integration of the 5G RAN system components, which are now provided by a diverse set of suppliers.

Another aspect of this growing complexity is the need for denser networks. Although powerful, new 5G antennas and RAN gear required to attain maximum bandwidth cover substantially less distance than 4G macro cells operating at lower frequencies. This means similar coverage requires more 5G hardware and supporting software. Adding the essential gear for 5G networks can dramatically raise operational costs, but the hardware is only a portion of these costs. The expenses of maintaining a network include the time and money spent on configuration changes, testing, monitoring, repairs, and upgrades.

For most nationwide operators, Edge and RAN cell sites are widely deployed and geographically dispersed across the nation. As network densification increases, it becomes impractical to manually onboard thousands of servers across multiple sites. CSPs need to create a strategy for incorporating greater automation into their network and continue service operations to ensure robust connectivity, manage to expand network complexities, and preserve cost efficiencies without the need for a complete "rip and replace" strategy.

As CSPs migrate to an edge-computing architecture, a new set of requirements emerges. As workloads move closer to the network's edge, CSPs must still maintain ultra-high availability often 5-6 nines. Legacy technology is incapable of attaining this degree of availability.

Scalability, specifically down to a single node with a small footprint at the edge. When a single network reaches tens of thousands of cell sites, you simply cannot afford to have a significant physical footprint with many servers. As a result, the need for a new architecture that can scale up and down grew. As applications grow more real-time, ultra-low latency at the edge is required.  CSPs need in-built lifecycle management to perform live software upgrades and manage this environment. Finally, CSPs are demanding more and more open-source software for their networks. Wind River Studio addresses each of these network issues.

Wind River Studio Cloud Platform, which is the StarlingX project with commercial support, provides a production-grade distributed Kubernetes solution for managing edge cloud infrastructure. In addition to the Kubernetes-based Wind River Studio Cloud Platform, Studio also provides orchestration (Wind River Studio Conductor) and analytics (Wind River Studio Analytics) capabilities so operators can deploy and manage their intelligent 5G edge networks globally.

Mobile Network Operators who adopt vRAN and Open RAN must integrate cloud platform software on optimized and tuned hardware to create a cloud platform for vRAN and Open RAN applications. Dell and Wind River have worked together to create a fully engineered, pre-integrated solution designed to streamline 5G vRAN and Open RAN design, deployment, and lifecycle management.  Dell Telecom Infrastructure Blocks for Wind River integrate Dell Bare Metal Orchestrator (BMO) and Wind River Studio on Dell PowerEdge servers to provide factory-integrated building blocks for deploying ultra-low latency, vRAN and Open RAN networks with centralized, zero-touch provisioning and management capabilities.


Diagram, qr code

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Key Advantages:

  • Reduces the complexity of integration and lifecycle management in a highly distributed, disaggregated network, allowing lower operating costs while reducing time to deploy new services while accelerating innovation.
  • Dell's comprehensive, factory-integrated solution simplifies supply chain management by reducing the number of components and suppliers needed to build out the network. In addition, to back-haul optimization by preloading all software needed for day-0 and day-1 automation. 
  • It has been thoroughly tested and includes design guidance for building and scaling out a network that provides low latency, redundancy, and High Availability (HA) for carrier-grade RAN Applications.
  • Simplified support with Dell providing single contact support for the whole stack including all hardware and software from Dell and Wind River with an option for carrier-grade support. 
  • Reduces the total cost of ownership (TCO) for CSPs by deploying a fully integrated, validated, and production-ready vRAN/O-RAN cloud infrastructure solution with a smaller footprint, low latency, and operational simplicity.

Qr code

Description automatically generated with medium confidence


Wind River Studio Cloud Platform Architecture

Wind River Studio Cloud Platform Distributed Cloud configuration supports an edge computing solution by providing central management and orchestration for a geographically distributed network of cloud platform systems with easy installation with support for complete Zero Touch Provisioning of the entire cloud, from the Central Region to all the Sub-Clouds

The architecture features a synchronized distributed control plane for reduced latency, with an autonomous control plane such that all sub-cloud local services are operational even during loss of Northbound connectivity to the Central Region (Distributed cloud system controllers cluster location) which is quite important because Studio Cloud Platform can scale horizontal or vertical independent from the main cloud in the regional data center (RDC) or in National Data center (NDC). 


Graphical user interface, diagram

Description automatically generated

Cell Sites, or sub-clouds, are geographically dispersed edge sites of varying sizes. Dell Telecom Infrastructure Blocks for Wind River cell site installations can be either All-in-One Simplex (AIO- SX), AIO Duplex (DX), or All-in-One (AIO) DX + workers. For a typical AIO SX deployment, at least one server is needed in a sub-cloud. Remote worker sites running Bare Metal Orchestrator are where sub-clouds are set up.

  • AIO-SX (All-In-One Simplex) - A complete hyper-converged cloud with no HA, with ultra-low cloud platform overhead of 2 physical cores and 64G Memory, and 500G Disk, which is required to run the cloud, while the rest of the CPU cores, memory, and disk are used for the applications.
  • AIO-DX (All-In-One Duplex) - Same as AIO-SX except that it runs on 2 servers to provide High Availability (HA) up to 6-9's. 
  • AIO-DX (All-In-One Duplex) +Workers - Two nodes plus a set of worker nodes (starting small and growing as workload demands increase) 

The Central Site at the RDC is deployed as a standard cluster across three Dell PowerEdge R750 servers, two of which are the controller nodes and one of which is a worker node, The Central Site also known as the system controller, provides orchestration and synchronization services for up to 1000 distributed sub-clouds, or cell sites. Controller-0, Controller-1, and Workers-0 through n are the various controllers in the system. To implement AIO DX, both Controller-0 and Controller-1 are required.  

Wind River Studio Conductor runs in the National Data Center (NDC) as an orchestrator and infrastructure automation manager. It integrates with Dell's Bare Metal Orchestrator (BMO) to provide complete end-to-end automation for the full hardware and software stack. Additionally, it provides a centralized point of control for managing and automating application deployment in an environment that is large-scale and distributed.

Studio Conductor receives information from Bare Metal Orchestrator as new cell sites come online. Studio Conductor instructs the system controller (CaaS manager) to install, bootstrap, and deploy Studio Cloud Platform at the cell sites. It supports TOSCA (Topology and Orchestration Specification for Cloud Application) based blueprint modeling. (Blueprints are policies that enable orchestration modeling.) Studio Conductor uses blueprints to map services to all distributed clouds and determine the right place to deploy. It also includes built-in secret storage to securely store password keys internally, reducing threat opportunities.

Studio Conductor can adapt and integrate with existing orchestration solutions. The plug-in architecture allows it to accommodate new and old technologies, so it can easily be extended to accommodate evolving requirements.

Wind River Studio Analytics is an integrated data collection, monitoring, analysis, and reporting tool used to optimize distributed network operations. Studio Analytics specifically solves a unique use case for the distributed edge.  It provides visibility and operational insights into the Studio Cloud Platform from a Kubernetes and application workload perspective. Studio Analytics has a built-in alerting system with the ability to integrate with several third-party monitoring systems. Studio Analytics uses technology from Elastic. co as a foundation to take data reliably and securely from any source and format, then search, analyze, and visualize it in real time. Studio Analytics also uses the Kibana product from Elastic as an open user interface to visually display the data in a dashboard.

Dell Telecom Multi-Cloud Foundation Infrastructure Blocks provides a validated, automated, and factory integrated engineered system that paves the way for the zero-touch deployment of 5G Telco Cloud Infrastructure, to operation and management of the lifecycle of vRAN and Open RAN sites, all of which contribute to a high-performing network that lessens the cost, time, complexity, and risk of deploying and maintaining a telco cloud for the delivery of 5G services.

To learn more about our solution, please visit the Dell Telecom Multi-Cloud Foundation solutions site

Authored by: 
Gaurav Gangwal
Senior Principal Engineer – Technical Marketing, Product Management

About the author:

Gaurav Gangwal works in Dell's Telecom Systems Business (TSB) as a Technical Marketing Engineer on the Product Management team. He is currently focused on 5G products and solutions for RAN, Edge, and Core. Prior to joining Dell in July 2022, he worked for AT&T for over ten years and previously with Viavi, Alcatel-Lucent, and Nokia. Gaurav has an engineering degree in electronics and telecommunications and has worked in the telecommunications industry for about 14 years. He currently resides in Bangalore, India.


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Computing on the Edge: Outdoor Deployment Classes

Mike Moore

Fri, 02 Dec 2022 20:21:29 -0000


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Ultimately, all the testing involved with GR-63-CORE and GR-1089-CORE is intended to qualify hardware designs that have the environmental, electrical, and safety qualities that allow for installations from the Central Office, all the way out to the Cell Site. For deployments at the Cell Site, it turns out that NEBS Level 3 is really only the start and the minimum environmental threshold for Cell Site Controlled Environment.

This is where GR-3108-CORE comes into scope.  GR-3108-CORE, Generic Requirements for Network Equipment in Outside Plant (OSP), defines the environmental tolerances for equipment deployed throughout a Telecom Network, from the Central Office, to up the tower of the Cell Site, and to the customer premises.   

Figure 1. GR-3108-CORE Equipment ClassesThe four Classes of equipment defined in GR-3108-CORE are:

Class 1: Equipment in Controlled or Protected Environments 

Class 2: Protected Equipment in Outside Environments

Class 3: Protected Equipment in Severe Outside Environments

Class 4: Products in Unprotected Environment directly exposed to the weather

The primary drivers of these classes include:

  • Thermal, including Cold Start and Hot Start
  • Temperature and Humidity Cycling
  • Salt Fog Exposure
  • Closure and Housing Requirements

Class 1: Equipment in Controlled or Protected Environments

The OSP for Class 1 enclosures includes Controlled Environmental Vaults, Huts and Cabinets with active heating and cooling, Telecom Closets in-Building/on-Figure 2. Typical OSP Enclosure and Concrete HutBuilding or Residential Locations.  The requirements for Class 1 installations are very much in line with NEBS Level 3 specifications with the recurring theme on these enclosures being that there is some active means of environmental control.   The methods of maintaining a controlled environment are not specified, but the method used must maintain the defined operating temperatures between -5°C (23°F) to 50°C (122°F) and humidity levels between 5-85 percent.

Other expectations for Class 1 enclosures include performing initial, cold, or hot startup throughout the entire temperature range and continued operation if device single fan failures occurs, but at a lower upper-temperature threshold.

Class 2: Protected Equipment in Outside Environments

Figure 3. Example Class 2 Protected EnclosuresThe internal enclosures or spaces of a Class 2 OSP have an extended temperature range of -40°C (-40°F) to 65°C (149°F), with humidity levels the same as for Class 1.  Typically, while these OSPs continue to protect the hardware from the outside elements, environmental controls are less capable and often involve the use of cooling fans, heat exchangers and raised fins to dissipate heat.  Besides outdoor enclosures, Class 2 environments can also include customer premise locations such as garages, attics or uncontrolled warehouses.

For hardware designers, creating Carrier Grade Servers, this is where it’s particularly important to pay attention to the components being used when you’re looking at your target Class 2 deployment environment.  Many manufacturers will provide specifications on the maximum temperature where the IC component will operate. Typically, the maximum temperature is a die temperature, and the method of heat evacuation is left to the HW designers, in the form of heat sinks, fans for airflow, and others.

However, for those attempting compliance with Class 2, the lower temperature range also becomes important because many ICs are not tested for operation below 0°C.  The IC temperature grades generally come in commercial (0°C/32°F to 70°C/158°F), Industrial (-40°C/-40°F to 85°C/185°F), Military (-55°C/-67°F to 125°C/257°F), and Automotive grades.

So the specs for Commercial grade ICs may not even accommodate the requirements of even a Class 1 OSP.   So, what do designers do?   Sometimes, you’ll see an “asterisk” on the server spec sheet, indicating that the device can run at the lower temperature range, but not start at the lower range.  This is where the design can start at 0C and provide sufficient heat to keep the IC warm down through -5°C (23°F).

Designers may also consider including some pre-heater or enclosure heater to bring the device up to 0°C before a startup is allowed or incur the added expense of extended temperature parts.

Class 3: Protected Equipment in Severe Outside Environments

Severe is certainly the theme for Class 3 OSPs.  In these environments, while inside an enclosure to protect the device from direct sunlight and rain, the enclosure may not be sealed from other outside stresses like hot, cold and humidity extremes, dust and other airborne contaminants, salt fog, etc.  Temperature ranges from -40°C (-40°F) to 70°C (158°F) and humidity levels from 5% to 95%, with single fan failure requirements of 65°C.  Certainly, indoor hostile environments, such as boiler rooms, furnace spaces and attics also exist that would require Class 3 designed solutions.Figure 4.Protected Sever Cabinet 

Class 4: Products in Unprotected Environment directly exposed to the weather

Figure 5. Class 4 Radio UnitsThis class of equipment is intended for outdoor deployments, with full exposure to sun, rain, wind and all the environmental challenges found, for example, at the top of a Cell Tower.  For Telecom, Class 4 certification would typically be the domain of Antennas and Remote Radio Heads.  These units, mounted on towers, buildings, street lamps, and other places are fully exposed to the entire spectrum of environmental challenges.  Class 4 devices get a bit of a break on temperature, -40°C (-40°F) to 46°C (115°F), due to direct exposure to sunlight, but 100% humidity due to its exposure to rain.


For Carrier Grade Servers, Class 1 (NEBS Level 3 equivalent) is the most common target of designers creating compute, storage, and networking platforms for Telecom consumption.  Class 2 servers are also achievable, and their demand may increase as Edge Computing and O-RAN/Cloud RAN deployments become more common, moving beyond Class 2 will require specialty, more purpose-defined designs.

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edge NEBS

Computing on the Edge: NEBS Criteria Levels

Mike Moore

Tue, 15 Nov 2022 14:43:44 -0000


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In our previous blogs, we’ve explored the type of tests involved to successfully pass the criteria of GR-63-CORE, Physical Protections, GR-1089-CORE, Electromagnetic Compatibility, and Electrical Safety.  The goal of successfully completing these tests is to create Carrier Grade, NEBS compliant equipment.  However, outside of highlighting the set of documents that compose NEBS, nothing is mentioned of the NEBS levels and the requirements to achieve each level. NEBS levels are defined in Special Report, SR-3580.  

Figure 1. NEBS Certification LevelsNEBS Level 3 compliance is expected from most Telecom environments, outside of a traditional data center. So, what NEBS level do equipment manufacturers aim to achieve?  

At first, I created Figure 1 as a pyramid, not inverted, with Level 1 as the base and Level 3 as the peak. However, I reorganized the graphic because Level 1 isn’t really a foundation, it is a minimum acceptable level. Let’s dive into what is required to achieve each NEBS certification level. 

NEBS Level 1

NEBS Level 1 is the lowest level of NEBS certification. It provides the minimum level of environmental hardening and stresses safety criteria to minimize hazards for installation and maintenance administrators.  

This level is the minimum acceptable level of NEBS environmental compatibility required to preclude hazards and degradation of the network facility and hazards to personnel.

This level includes the following tests:

  • Fire resistance
  • Radiated radiofrequency (RF)
  • Electrical safety
  • Bonding or grounding

Level 1 criteria does not assess Temperature/Humidity, Seismic, ESD or Corrosion.

Operability, enhanced resilience, and environmental tolerances are assessed in Levels 2 and 3.

NEBS Level 2

Figure 2. Map of Seismic Potential in the US

NEBS Level 2 assesses some environmental criteria, but the target deployment is in a “normal” environment, such as data center installations where temperatures and humidity are well controlled. These environments typically experience limited impacts of EMI, ESD, and EFTs, and have some protection from lightning, Surges and Power Faults.  There is also some Seismic Testing performed on the EUT, but only to Zone 2. While there is no direct correlation between seismic zones and earthquake intensity, in the United States, zone 2 generally covers the Rocky Mountains, much of the West and parts Southeast and Northeast Regions. 

NEBS Level 2 certification may be sufficient for some Central Office (CO) installations but is not sufficient for deployment to Far Edge or Cell Site Enclosures which can be exposed to environmental and electromagnetic extremes, or in regions covered by seismic zones 3 or 4.

NEBS Level 3

Figure 3. Level 3 criteria

NEBS Level 3 certification is the highest level of NEBS Certification and is the level  that is expected by most North American telecom and network providers when specificizing equipment requirements for installation into controlled environments.

Level 3 is required to provide maximum assurance of equipment operability within the network facility environment. 

Level 3 criteria are also suited for equipment applications that demand minimal service interruptions over the equipment’s life.

Full NEBS Level 3 certification can take from three to six months to complete. This includes prepping and delivering the hardware to the lab, test scheduling, performance, analysis of test results, and the production of the final report. If a failure occurs, systems can be redesigned for retesting.  


While environmental, electrical, electromagnetic, and safety specifications described in NEBS Level 3 certification, it is the minimum required for deployment into a controlled telecom network environment; these specifications are only the beginning for outdoor deployments. The next blog in this series will explore more of these specifications such as GR-3108-CORE and general requirements for Network Equipment in Outside Plant (OSP). Stay tuned.

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Wind River

Accelerate Telecom Cloud Deployments with Dell Telecom Infrastructure Blocks

Gaurav Gangwal

Mon, 31 Oct 2022 16:48:10 -0000


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During MWC Vegas, Dell Technologies announced Dell’s first Telecom Infrastructure Blocks co-engineered with our partner Wind River to help communication service providers (CSPs) reduce complexity, accelerate network deployments, and simplify life cycle management of 5G network infrastructure. Their first use cases will be focused on infrastructure for virtual Radio Access Network (vRAN) and Open RAN workloads.

Deploying and supporting open, virtualized, and cloud-native 5G RANs is one of the key requirements to accelerate 5G adoption. The number of options available in 5G RAN design makes it imperative that infrastructures supporting them are flexible, fully automated for distributed operations, and maximally efficient in terms of power, cost, the resources they consume, and the performance they deliver.

Dell Telecom Infrastructure Blocks for Wind River are designed and fully engineered to provide a turnkey experience with fully integrated hardware and software stacks from Dell and Wind River that are RAN workload-ready and aligned with workload requirements. This means the engineered system, once delivered, will be ready for RAN network functions onboarding through a simple and standard workflow avoiding any integration and lifecycle management complexities normally expected from a fully disaggregated network deployment.  

The Dell Telecom Infrastructure Blocks for Wind River are a part of the Dell Technologies Multi-Cloud Foundation, a telecom cloud designed specifically to assist CSPs in providing network services on a large scale by lowering the cost, time, complexity, and risk of deploying and maintaining a distributed telco-cloud. Dell Telecom Infrastructure Blocks for Wind River are comprised of:

  • Dell hardware that has been validated and optimized for RAN
  • Dell Bare Metal Orchestrator and a Bare Metal Orchestrator Module (a combination of a Bare Metal Orchestrator plug-in and a Wind River Conductor integration plug-in)
  • Wind River Studio, which is comprised of:
    • Wind River Conductor
    • Wind River Cloud Platform
    • Wind River Analytics

How do Dell Telecom Infrastructure Blocks for Wind River make infrastructure design, delivery, and lifecycle management of a telecom cloud better and easier?

From technology onboarding to Day 2+ operations for CSPs, Dell Telecom Infrastructure Blocks streamline the processes for technology acquisition, design, and management. We have broken down these processes into 4 stages. Let us examine how Dell Telecom Infrastructure Blocks for Wind River can impact each stage of this journey. 

Stage 1: Technology onboarding | Faster Time to Market

The first stage is the Technology onboarding, where Dell Technologies works with Wind River in Dell’s Solution Engineering Lab to develop the engineered system. Together we design, validate, build, and run a broad range of test cases to create an optimized engineered system for 5G RAN vCU/vDU and Telecom Multi-Cloud Foundation Management clusters. During this stage, we conduct extensive solution testing with Wind River performing more than 650 test cases. This includes validating functionality, interoperability, security, scalability, high availability, and test cases specific to the workload’s infrastructure requirements to ensure this system operates flawlessly across a range of scale and performance points.  

We also launched our OTEL Lab (Open Telecom Ecosystem Lab) to allow telecom ecosystem suppliers (ISVs) to integrate or certify their workload applications on Dell infrastructure including Telecom Infrastructure Blocks. Customers and partners working in OTEL can fine-tune the Infrastructure Block to a given CSP’s needs, marrying the efficiency of Infrastructure Block development with the nuances presented in meeting a CSP’s specific requirements.   

Continuous improvement in the design of Infrastructure Blocks is enabled by ongoing feedback on the process throughout the life of the solution which can further streamline the design, validation, and certification. This extensive process produces an engineered system that streamlines the operator’s reference architecture design, benchmarking, proof of concept, and end-to-end validation processes to reduce engineering costs and accelerate the onboarding of new technology.

All hardware and software required for this Engineered system are integrated in Dell’s factory and sold and supported as a single system to simplify procurement, reduce configuration time, and streamline product support.

This "shift left" in the design, development, validation, and integration of the stacks means readiness testing and integration are finished sooner in the development cycle than they would have been with more traditional and segregated development and test processes. For CSPs, this method speeds up time to value by reducing the time needed to prepare and validate a new solution for deployment.

Now we go from Technology onboarding to the second phase, pre-production.

Stage 2: Pre-production | Accelerated onboarding

From Dell’s Solution Engineering Labs, the engineered system moves into the CSPs pre-production environment where the  golden configuration is defined. Rather than receiving a collection of disaggregated components, (infrastructure, cloud stacks, automation, and so on.) CSPs start with a factory-integrated, engineered system that can be quickly deployed in their pre-production test lab. At this stage, customers leverage the best practices, design guidance, and lessons learned to create a fully validated stack for their workload. The next step is to pre-stage the Telco Cloud stack including the workload and start preparing for Day 1 and Day 2 by integrating with the customer CI/CD pipeline and defining/agreeing on the life-cycle management process to support the first office application deployment.

Stage 3: Production | Automation enables faster deployment

Advancing the flow, deployment into production is accelerated by:

  1. Factory integration that reduces procurement, installation, and integration time on-site.
  2. Embedded automation that reduces time spent configuring hardware or software. This includes validating configurations and streamlining processes with Customer Information Questionnaires (CIQs). CIQs are YAML files that list credentials, management networks, storage details, physical locations, and other relevant data needed to set the telco cloud stack at different physical locations for CSPs.
  3. Streamlining support with a unified single call carrier-grade support model for the full cloud stack.  

Automating deployment eliminates manual configuration errors to accelerate product delivery. Should the CSP need assistance with deployment, Dell's professional services team is standing by to assist. Dell provides on-site services to rack, stack, and integrate servers into their network.

Stage 4: Day 2+ Operations | Performance, lifecycle management, and support

Day 2+ operations are simplified in several ways. First, the automation provided, combined with the extensive validation testing Dell and Wind River perform, ensure a consistent, telco-grade deployment, or upgrade each time. This streamlines daily fault, configuration, performance, and security management in the fully distributed cloud.  In addition, Dell Bare Metal Orchestrator will automate the detection of configuration drift and its remediation. And, Wind River Studio Analytics utilizes machine learning to proactively detect issues before they become a problem.   

Second, Dell’s Solutions Engineering lab validates all-new feature enhancements to the software and hardware including new updates, upgrades, bug fixes, and security patches. Once we have updated the engineered system, we push it via Dell CI/CD pipeline to Dell factory and OTEL Lab. We can also push the update to the CSP's CI/CD pipeline using integrations set up by Dell Services to reduce the testing our customers perform in their labs.

We complement all this by providing unified, single-call support for the entire cloud stack with options for carrier-grade SLAs for service response and restoration times.   

Proprietary appliance-based networks are being replaced by best-of-breed, multivendor cloud networks as CSPs adapt their network designs for 5G RAN. As CSPs adopt disaggregated, cloud-native architectures, Dell Technologies is ready to lend a helping hand. With Dell Telecom Multi-Cloud Foundation, we provide an automated, validated, and continuously integrated foundation for deploying and managing disaggregated, cloud-native telecom networks. 

Ready to talk?  Request a callback.
To learn more about our solution, please visit the Dell Telecom Multi-Cloud Foundation solutions site

Authored by: 
Gaurav Gangwal
Senior Principal Engineer – Technical Marketing, Product Management

About the author:

Gaurav Gangwal works in Dell's Telecom Systems Business (TSB) as a Technical Marketing Engineer on the Product Management team. He is currently focused on 5G products and solutions for RAN, Edge, and Core. Prior to joining Dell in July 2022, he worked for AT&T for over ten years and previously with Viavi, Alcatel-Lucent, and Nokia. Gaurav has an engineering degree in electronics and telecommunications and has worked in the telecommunications industry for about 14 years. He currently resides in Bangalore, India.



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Telecom Innovations: Breaking Down the Barriers to DevSecOps

Saad Sheikh

Fri, 02 Sep 2022 15:16:44 -0000


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DevOps—the fusion of software development with IT operations—has been a best practice among development and IT teams for quite some time now. More recently, the need to integrate security within the DevOps process has made DevSecOps the new gold standard for software development and operations. While this may seem like great idea on paper, but what happens when the developers, security architects, and network ops teams are not part of the same company? Telecom networks are typically developed by multiple suppliers.

In many cases, telecom software is developed by external vendors in a walled fashion where Communication Service Providers (CSPs) have little visibility into the development process. 

The need to adhere to strict telecom standards and models such as Enhanced Telecom Operations Map (eTOM) and European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) also compounds the complexity of DevSecOps in telecom. The third barrier is managing a single DevSecOps pipeline while juggling multiple generations of network equipment and configurations

Removing barriers with open telecommunications

What happens when there is no unified environment to support DevSecOps processes? You build one. That’s what Dell Technologies did with the recent launch of its Open Telecom Ecosystem Lab (OTEL). With OTEL, telecom operators and software and technology partners can work together using an end-to-end systems approach that spans seamlessly across vendor, lab, staging, and production environments. 

Diagram, timeline

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OTEL provides everything that CSPs and vendors need to support DevSecOps processes with the new Solutions Integration Platform (SIP) including:

  • Continuous integration across environments
  • Continuous deployment of all new software releases in a controlled manner
  • Continuous testing to ensure that updates/changes are mostly (80+ percent) automated
  • A closed-loop system where pipeline decisions are driven by real-time data insights 

A holistic approach to integration, deployment, and testing

In the last few years, there has been a big push to incorporate continuous integration/deployment (CI/CD) pipelines in the telecommunications industry. This push has been met with resistance because of the following challenges: 

  • Walled software development,
  • Multi-generation network technology, 
  • and stringent requirements around performance, reliability, and security. 

Telecom operators’ enterprise customers also have limited involvement in software development despite a deep interest in the functionality and outcomes of that software. For the operaters, becoming a part of the software development process can mean getting services to market sooner with a finished product that meets the needs of end users.

One of the primary goals of OTEL is to deliver telecom innovation as a platform, providing three core capabilities: 

  • Integrated software development: Although telecom software vendors will ultimately define and control this process, OTEL offers them a unified packaging template and test specifications that can be shared easily across CSP and partner ecosystems.
  • Lab and staging environment: Once the software is validated and security-hardened, it can be deployed in the OTEL lab and pre-deployment environments to identify and fix potential issues before deployment in the production network.
  • Replicated pre/production environment: OTEL can replicate the production environment to ensure seamless integration between all components.

Addressing the telco security challenges 

Telecom Networks are critical infrastructure and have a unique requirements on security driven by service needs and SLA’s, strong regulations and geographical laws, and cyber and data privacy . For 5G and cloud solutions, which involve many vendors, it is important to build a zero trust security architecture that can be validated and tested in a automated CI/CD driven approach. It is also important to enable security mechanisms that can automate security tests across each layer of network. These include:

  • Telecom network layer security
  • Service layer security 
  • End point security
  • Data platforms and close loop automation 

Integrating both the functional and non-functional requirements of telecom networks including security, reliability, and performance is the unique challenge Dell is trying to address through its state of art OTEL . By reducing the complexity of telecom software development and ensuring better integration and collaboration, OTEL is giving CSPs and their partners the agility and security they need to deliver the next generation of 5G and edge solutions.

To learn more about OTEL and how you can take advantage of OTEL’s state-of-the-art lab environment, contact Dell at Open Telecom Ecosystem Labs (OTEL.)

Author information

Saad Sheikh is a APJ Lead Systems Architect for Orchestration and NextGen Ops in Dell Telecom Systems Business (TSB) . In this role he is responsible to support partners, NEP’s, and customers to simplify and accelerate networks transformation to open and dis-aggregated infrastructures and solutions (5G, edge computing, core, and cloud platforms) using Dell’s products and capabilities that are based on multi cloud, data driven, ML/AI supported and open ways to build next generation Operational capabilities. In addition as part of Dell CTO team he represent Dell in Linux Foundation , TMforum , GSMA, ETSI, ONAP, and TIP. He has more than 20 years of experience in industry in telco's system integrators, consulting business, and with telecom vendors where he has worked on E2E Telecoms systems (RAN, Transport, Core, Networks), cloud platforms, automation and orchestration, and intelligent networking.

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containers telecom

Bandwidth Guarantees for Telecom Services using SR-IOV and Containers

John Williams

Mon, 12 Dec 2022 19:14:38 -0000


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With the emergence of Container-native Virtualization (CNV) or the ability to run and manage virtual machines alongside container workloads, Single Root I/O Virtualization (SR-IOV) takes on an important role in the Communications Industry. Most telecom services require guarantees of capacity e.g. number of simultaneous TCP connections, or concurrent voice calls, or other similar metrics. Each telecom service capacity requirement can be translated into the amount of upload/download data that must be handled, and the maximum amount of time that can pass before a service is deemed non-operational. These bounds of data and time must be met end-to-end, as a telecom service is delivered. The SR-IOV technology plays a crucial role on meeting these requirements.

With SR-IOV being available to workloads and VMs, Telecom customers can divide the bandwidth provided by the physical PCIe device (NICs) into virtual functions or virtual NICs. This allows the virtual NICs with dedicated bandwidth to be assigned to individual workloads or VMs ensuring SLA agreements can be fulfilled. 

In the illustration above, say we have a 100GB NIC device that is shared amongst workloads and VMs on a single hardware server.  The bandwidth on a single interface is typically shared amongst the workloads and VMs as shown for interface 1. If one workload or VM is extremely bandwidth hungry it could consume a large portion of the bandwidth, say 50%, leaving the other workloads or VMs to share the remaining 50% of the bandwidth which could impact the SLAs agreements under contract the Telco customer. 

To ensure this doesn’t happen the specification for SR-IOV allows the PCIe NIC to be sliced up into virtual NICs or VFs as shown with interface 2 above.  Slicing the NIC interface into VFs, one can specify the bandwidth per VF.  For example, 30GB bandwidth could be specified for VF1 and VF2 for the workloads while VF3–5 could be allocated the remaining bandwidth divided evenly or perhaps only give 5GB each leaving 15GB for future VMS or workloads.  By specifying the bandwidth at the VF level, Telco companies can guarantee bandwidths for workloads or VMs thus meeting the SLA agreement with their customers.   

While this high-level description of the mechanics illustrates how you enabled the two aspects: SR-IOV for workloads and SR-IOV for VMs, Dell Technology has a white paper, SR-IOL Enablement for Container Pods in OpenShift 4.3 Ready Stack, which provides the step-by-step details for enabling this technology.  

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