The 2005 ACM SIGMOD International Conference on Management of Data included a paper titled “Enterprise Information Integration: Successes, Challenges and Controversies” (Halevy 2005). The authors open the paper by defining the goals of an Enterprise Information Integration (EII) tool as follows:
“The goal of EII Systems is to provide uniform access to multiple data sources without having to first loading [SIC] them into a data warehouse.”
Around this time, there were nearly 30 venture-backed software firms entering the EII market including Avaki, Ipedo, Journee Software, Metamatrix, Xaware, and more (Eve, 2017). A year later in 2006, Forrester published a research paper entitled “Information Fabric: Enterprise Data Virtualization” (Yuhanna, 2006) that established data virtualization as a specific approach within the broader category of enterprise information integration technologies.